- Increase in luxury features and advanced technology delivers value
- Cutting edge suspension technology continues tradition of superb dynamics
- Eight-speed automatic transmission standard across the range
- Parking Assistant and Surround View
- 528i, 535i and 550i on sale from 3rd June 2010
- 520d arrives in September 2010
New BMW 5 Series sedan: sporting design, dynamic drive
The BMW 5 Series sedan is now into its sixth generation.
With a larger and more spacious interior, a sleek aerodynamic design, powerful and efficient
engines, an array of luxury features, and cutting edge suspension technology, the new generation
BMW 5 Series sedan will enter a very competitive market segment.
"The new BMW 5 Series sedan represents a dramatic advancement in the evolution of the
world's best luxury executive sedan," said BMW Group Australia Managing Director, Stavros
"With its stunning contemporary design, trademark BMW driving dynamics, powerful and
efficient petrol and diesel engines and extensive array of luxury features and advanced
technologies, the new 5 Series sedan has moved forward in every way."
"In keeping with our objective to consistently increase value for our customers, BMW
Group Australia has been able to maintain the price of the new model at levels that are
comparable to the previous generation on a specification adjusted comparison and more than
competitive with our major rivals," he said.
The sixth generation BMW 5 Series sedan goes on sale through Australian dealerships on 3rd
June 2010 launching with a three-model petrol range featuring the 528i, 535i and 550i, with
the four-cylinder turbodiesel 520d due to arrive in September 2010.
A stylish and sporting executive sedan, the new BMW 5 Series sedan combines the trademark
BMW design characteristics of wide kidney grille, chiselled bonnet and 'muscular' rear-end with
sleek elegant lines and a coupe-like roofline in proportion to provide an agile aesthetic.
Inside the larger and more spacious and luxurious cabin, the contemporary driver-oriented
design provides an environment in which to enjoy the car's driving pleasure while the quality
materials, precise fit and finish and a perceived level of comfort and convenience features
provides a suitable ambience for all occupants.
Standard specification across the three model petrol range is generous and includes
multi-zone climate control, fine Dakota leather upholstery, wood trim, keyless start, cruise
control with brake function, front and rear Park Distance Control, Head-Up Display, anti-dazzle
interior mirror, electric adjustment for the driver and front passenger seats (four-way for
528i), Bi-Xenon headlights and windscreen wipers, ambient lighting, 18 inch alloy wheels (19
inch alloy wheels on 550i), satellite navigation system, Bluetooth connectivity, a premium CD
audio system with USB interface, and through-loading, across the range.
Six airbags, Antilock Braking System incorporating Cornering Brake Control, Brake Assist,
Dynamic Stability Control, active front head restraints and active bonnet pedestrian protection
provide the ultimate in active and passive safety performance.
The BMW 535i and BMW 550i models also feature adaptive headlights to improve night vision
in corners, high beam assist, a rear view camera, full electric front seat adjustment with
lumbar support, sports leather steering wheel, sports automatic transmission, comfort access
system, extended air-conditioning, premium HiFi audio system with 12 speakers and metallic
Furthermore, the range topping BMW 550i gains comfort seats with ventilation and heating,
alarm, electric glass sunroof, electric sunblind for the rear window, exterior mirrors with
anti-dazzle function, 4 zone automatic air-conditioning, professional navigation, voice
recognition and DVD Changer all as standard.
Further personalisation options such as Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go and BMW Night
Vision are available with two highlights being the introduction of BMW's innovative Parking
Assistant and Surround View. Both systems assist the driver when parking in tight spaces with
the Parking Assistant choosing an appropriate parking space then automatically steering into
the space. Surround View displays a bird's eye view of the car on the large 7.0 inch (or 10.2
inch in combination with Navigation System Professional and standard on 550i) screen on the
Through the use of the so called BMW EfficientDynamics technologies, the BMW 5 Series sedan
offers the most powerful and fuel efficient engines in its class.
Topping the list is the 4.4 litre TwinPower Turbo V8 featuring High Precision Injection.
Generating a peak power of 300 kW and maximum torque of 600 Nm, in combination with the 8
speed Sports Automatic transmission, the all-aluminium engine provides the BMW 550i with the
ability to cover the 0-100 km/h sprint in 5.0 seconds.
BMW's new 3.0 litre TwinPower Turbo straight six cylinder engine, that made its debut in the
535i Gran Turismo, now combines both High Precision Injection and fully variable VALVETRONIC
valve control with the engine for the BMW 535i sedan. This results in a powerplant that develops
a maximum output of 225 kW of power and 400 Nm of torque and matched to the standard 8 speed
Sports automatic transmission, offers an outstanding 0-100km/h time of 6.1 seconds and combined
fuel consumption of 8.4 litres per 100 km.
Ongoing development of the naturally aspirated 3.0 litre straight six cylinder engine in the
BMW 528i including weight optimisation and application of EfficientDynamics technology has
improved fuel consumption over its predecessor in the 530i by 14 per cent. Generating 190 kW of
power and 310 Nm of torque and matched to the standard 8 speed automatic transmission, the BMW
528i offers combined fuel consumption of 8.0 litres per 100 km with impressive acceleration
covering 0-100 km/h in 6.7 seconds.
Ever since the first generation BMW 5 Series sedan made its debut in 1972, the car has had a
reputation for driving dynamics and with the latest generation BMW has again delivered driving
pleasure with an unparalleled degree of chassis control and technology.
Building on the sophisticated all-aluminium double wishbone front suspension and Integral V
rear axle, the BMW 535i and 550i are fitted standard with Dynamic Driving Control that offers
three modes of operation to enable the driver to adjust steering, throttle, transmission and DSC
response for the optimum balance of ride comfort and handling according to individual
preferences. For the entry-level petrol six-cylinder 528i, Dynamic Driving Control becomes
standard when either the 8 speed Sports Automatic transmission, Integral Active Steering or
Dynamic Damper Control is specified.
Dynamic Damper Control - available as an option on
the 528i - adds a fourth COMFORT mode of adjustment to the Dynamic Driving Control through the
addition of electronically controlled continuously variable damping.
The two turbocharged petrol variants 535i and 550i are able to take this level of control
even further with the optional Adaptive Drive that combines Dynamic Damper Control with a
Dynamic Drive stability management that acts on both front and rear anti-roll bars to quickly
and precisely build up appropriate counter forces during cornering.
To further aid the high-speed agility and comfort and low speed manoeuvrability of the new
BMW 5 Series sedan, all models can be fitted with the innovative Integral Active Steering that
not only controls the front wheels but also offers active rear wheel steering to an angle up
to 3.0 degrees.
Built at BMW Plant Dingolfing in Germany alongside the BMW 7 Series with which it shares
its basic architecture, the new BMW 5 Series sedan is a stylish sporting luxury sedan that uses
cutting edge, innovative technology to deliver class leading performance and efficiency and
BMW's so-called driving pleasure.
BMW 5 Series sedan Australian Pricing (MLP*):
BMW 520d - $83,300*
BMW 528i - $99,900*
BMW 535i - $128,900*
BMW 550i - $178,900*
- NOTE: * Manufacturer’s List Price (MLP) is shown and includes GST and Luxury
Car Tax (LCT) but excludes dealer charges, stamp duty, statutory charges and on-road
charges which are additional and vary between dealers and States/Territories.
Exterior design: sporting, charismatic and elegant
With its charismatic presence and stylish elegance, the design of the new BMW 5 Series sedan
clearly bears out the car's uncompromising premium quality. Together with its perfectly balanced
dynamic proportions, long wheelbase and coupe-like sleek and flowing roofline that reflects the
car's sporting prowess, it is unmistakably a BMW.
The elegant front end of the new 5 Series sedan is characterised by the upright BMW kidney
grille, wide air intake with integrated fog lamps set to the outer edge and dual round headlights
surrounded by the distinctive LED ring daytime driving lights.
The slight wedge-shape, concise interpretation of the BMW trademark Hofmeister kick with the
tightest radius ever, and the longest wheelbase in its class measuring 2,968 mm, gives the BMW 5
Series sedan a particularly dynamic side profile that suggests a car in motion even at standstill.
The large elegant 18 inch alloy wheels (17 inch for 520d and 19 inch for 550i) fill the wheel
arches and together with the scalloped sides and short overhangs provide a powerful aesthetic.
Classic BMW L-shaped tail lights, a sharp-edged boot lid, wide track with flared wheel arches
and dual tail pipes located on either side of the car give the rear end a sculpted appearance
emphasising the sporting character of the 5 Series sedan.
The BMW 5 Series sedan is available in Alpine White or Black non-metallic finishes or a range
of ten metallic colours that are offered as a non-cost option on 535i and 550i models.
Interior design: stylish, contemporary, driver-oriented
The interior design of the new BMW 5 Series sedan clearly brings out the active 'character' of
the car and highlights its premium nature through the use of high quality, luxurious materials.
Across the front, the elegant asymmetrical dash is inclined towards the driver at an angle of
approximately 7 degrees to ensure all controls and functions are placed for quick and easy
reference. A keyless start/stop button sits prominently on the dash enabling the driver to keep
the remote key fob in a pocket or a handbag for example.
The latest generation iDrive system features user defined favourites buttons on the centre console
with the dial controller placed adjacent to the transmission shift lever for ergonomic and intuitive
use. All functions are displayed on the large bright 7 inch (10.2 inch in combination with Navigation
System Professional and standard on 550i) screen that is seamlessly integrated into the top of the
centre console for perfect viewing.
As a driver's car, the steering wheel is an integral part of the interior design and the newly
designed multi-function wheel offers added functionality with cruise control buttons now integrated
onto the left horizontal spoke with audio/phone controls on the right spoke. A Sports Leather Steering
wheel with gearshift paddles is standard on 535i and 550i and available as option in conjunction with
the Sports Automatic transmission for the 528i.
To enhance the luxurious ambience of the cabin, the BMW 5 Series sedan is available in a range of
trim and finish options. The standard fine Dakota leather upholstery is offered in a choice of six
colours with the optional Exclusive Nappa leather with extended contents in a choice of Black or
Likewise, there is a range of non-cost trim options including black high-gloss enamel, three
different types of wood or Fine Brushed Aluminium.
Ambient lighting courtesy of light strips incorporated into the interior provide a warm and inviting
atmosphere at night, elegantly illuminating accent trims and individual areas with a cosy orange hue.
Bordering the elongated horizontal trim lines across the dash is a Pearl Gloss Chrome edge that flows
seamlessly into the door linings right through to the rear providing a generous sense of space.
With its longer wheelbase and overall length of 4,899 mm (58 mm longer than the previous generation)
the new BMW 5 Series sedan offers a more spacious cabin with improved headroom and legroom in the rear.
The carpeted and well-finished boot maintains its generous 520 litre capacity although a lower loading
sill makes it easier to load and unload larger items. All models feature a 60/40-split folding rear seat
back to increase the luggage capacity while a new load through facility enables longer items such as skis
to carried safely and securely inside the cabin.
The large door bins, a glove box and a deep box beneath the centre console armrest between the front
seats provide further storage.
Comfort and convenience: luxury features, cosseting cabin environment
Comfort and convenience features in the new 5 Series sedan are of the highest order to ensure that
the driver and occupants enjoy a cosseting and comfortable ride.
It starts with the seats that offer a broad well shaped leather-trimmed backrest and squab that are
adjustable in myriad directions to deliver ride comfort and support. For the 528i, electric adjustment is
standard for height and backrest while the 535i gains full electric adjustment and lumbar support for
both driver and front passenger seats with driver seat memory to accommodate different drivers'
requirements at the touch of a button. The top of the range 550i features the full Comfort Seats that
also gain seat heating and ventilation and memory function for both driver and front passenger.
To ensure the optimum traveling environment, all 5 Series sedan models are fitted standard with an
automatic climate control system that combines a fogging sensor and microfilter with control and
adjustment carried out via the direct control panel on the centre console or through the iDrive
The 528i offers a dual zone system that allows different temperatures to be set for driver and front
passengers while the 535i system also enables individual front control for air volume and distribution
with an additional solar sensor, all function maximum air conditioning button, automatic recirculated
air control (AUC) and carbon filter providing improved interior atmosphere.
For the ultimate in cabin climate control, the 550i features a full four-zone system with separate
controls for all functions for driver and front and rear passengers. Occupants of the BMW 550i also have
the opportunity to vary the amount of light in the cabin courtesy of the standard electric glass sunroof
and electric sunblind for the rear window.
The standard high quality audio system in the BMW 528i features a digital AM/FM radio, single slot CD
player and six loudspeakers with both auxiliary and USB inputs for connecting an external personal audio
player such as an iPod. Offering superb music clarity and depth, this system can be optionally upgraded
to the HiFi Loudspeaker system that is standard in the 535i and 550i. This system gains an additional
six speakers that combined with the vehicle specific equalising and 205-watt power amplifier, provides
the ultimate in in-car audio quality. In the BMW 550i this system is complemented by the addition of a
six-stack CD/DVD changer.
All BMW 5 Series models feature latest generation flash drive satellite navigation systems as standard
with the 528i and 535i fitted with the Business Navigation unit combined with a 7 inch screen to display
high resolution maps and guiding arrows.
The 550i gains the Professional Navigation system (optional on 528i and 535i) that features a largest
in class 10.2 inch screen, satellite images, 3-D views and massive 80 GB hard disc that not only allows
particularly fast access to the digital navigation maps, also offers no less than 12 GB additional
capacity for a large collection of music files. Like the Business Navigation unit, it can be easily and
conveniently controlled via the iDrive controller and also allows Voice control.
As a standard feature in the BMW 550i, the latest generation of Voice recognition software can
understand full directions in a single command and can also control selected audio and phone operations.
To ensure smooth communication with the outside world, all BMW 5 Series models are fitted standard with
Bluetooth connectivity for hands-free mobile phone use.
In addition to the very high standard of creature comforts, BMW also offers a range of optional comfort
and convenience features to allow owners to further personalise their cars. These include electric boot
operation and automatic soft-close doors, active seats for driver and front passenger that deliver a
soothing massage on long journeys, a TV function in combination with the Professional Navigation system
and Rear Seat Entertainment systems that allow direct access to all audio, DVD or TV sources in the car.
Two Rear Seat Entertainment systems are available with both featuring DVD player, remote control,
wireless headsets and the option to connect MP3 players or game consoles. The standard system provides two 8
inch screens mounted in the rear of the front seat head restraints while the Professional Rear Entertainment
System uses larger 9.2 inch screens and has the option for each rear seat occupant to independently enjoy
different functions at the same time.
Driver assistance: advanced, innovative technology for safe motoring
In line with a philosophy of providing the driver with appropriate information at all times, all 5 Series
sedan models feature Head-up Display and Black Panel technology as standard. Without having to take eyes off
the road, the Head-up Display provides the driver with information such as current speed, warnings from
driver assistance systems and navigation data directly in the line of sight on a clear position on the
windscreen. The intensity of the projection is automatically adjusted for ambient light conditions and the
driver is able to choose which information is projected.
In a similar fashion, BMW's Black Panel technology on the instrument cluster that combines a high
resolution colour display, control and warning lights and four circular dials, forms a homogenous black
surface only permanently showing essential information provided by the chrome surround dials. Further data
such as current fuel consumption, time, outside temperature and feedback from driver assistance systems
are only shown on the 5.7 inch wide info display at the lower edge of the instrument cluster when
With the launch of the new BMW 5 Series sedan, BMW has become the first manufacturer in the segment to
offer such innovative technologies as the Parking Assistant and Surround View.
Designed to assist drivers with parallel parking manoeuvres, the Parking Assistant begins by using
ultrasound sensors integrated into the side indicator surrounds to constantly measure the length and
width of possible parking spaces along the side of the road. Operating at speeds up to 35km/h, once the
system detects a space that exceeds the car length by at least 1.2 m, it informs the driver with an
audible and visual signal. From this point on, all the driver has to do is operate the accelerator and
brake pedals while the Parking Assistant moves the steering wheel to reverse precisely into the space
To further aid parking or when manoeuvring in tight spaces, the new BMW 5 Series sedan is also
available with a first in class Surround View system that like the Parking Assistant is offered as an
option across the range.
Surround View combines four cameras - two mounted in the front guards of the car and two mounted in
the side mirrors - with the reversing camera (standard on 535i and 550i). These cameras provide an
overall picture of the position of the car from both the side perspective and from overhead that is
presented in the Control Display.
In addition to these innovative options, BMW also offers a range of features to assist safe driving
in all conditions including Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go, Lane Change Warning and Lane
Departure Warning, BMW Night Vision, and Adaptive Headlights (standard on 535i and 550i).
While Cruise Control with brake function is standard across the range, all models can also be ordered
with the advanced Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go that continually and smoothly adjusts the speed
of the car according to traffic conditions. The system can be set to a specific speed through a road
speed range of between 30 km/h and 180 km/h but should it be necessary, it will slow the car to a
complete standstill and hold it there without any driver intervention. After being stopped for more than
three seconds, the driver need only press down on the accelerator pedal or the Resume button on the
multi-function steering wheel in order to accelerate the car again.
Working in conjunction with the Active Cruise Control, the new BMW 5 Series sedan is also available
for the first time with a collision warning incorporating a brake activation function. Both systems may
be activated independently but are harmonised to each other in their functions.
In the first stage, if the Active Cruise Control is not in operation, the collision warning uses the
frontal radar sensors to determine potential collisions and warn the driver through a visual signal in
the instrument cluster and/or Head-Up Display.
If a collision is imminent, the second stage warning is activated regardless of the operating status
of the Active Cruise Control, that combines both audible and visual warnings as well initiating braking
for a maximum of 1.2 seconds
Further on-road driver assistance systems are optionally available in the form of the Lane Change
Warning and Lane Departure Warning technologies. The first monitors traffic in adjacent lanes from the
blind angle to about 60 metres behind and warns the driver by illuminating a triangular yellow symbol
in the exterior mirror if there is a vehicle in the critical range.
The Lane Departure Warning system uses a camera to monitor road markings and is able to detect an
unintended departure from a lane at speeds over 70 km/h. The camera is able to look ahead up to about
50 m and if the car starts to cross the lane, vibration through the steering wheel alerts the driver.
Driving at night can often be hazardous and while the standard Bi-Xenon headlights on the BMW 5 Series
sedan produce clear and bright illumination of the road and surrounds, BMW also offers optional highly
advanced lighting systems to further assist the driver.
Standard on BMW 550i and 535i and optional for the 528i, BMW's Adaptive Headlights automatically vary
light distribution and range according to road conditions with the headlights turning in the same
direction as the steering wheel through curves and winding roads. The Bending Light function switches on
an additional light beam in the direction of the bend to further illuminate the road ahead while the
range control takes into account vertical contours of the road to ensure superb vision without dazzling
The High Beam Assistant - optional 528i and standard on 535i and 550i - reduces the need for the
driver to monitor oncoming traffic by automatically switching the high beam lights on and off according
to traffic and ambient light conditions.
For when those light conditions are extremely poor, BMW also offers the second-generation version of
its BMW Night Vision system that is now able to detect individual persons. Using a thermal imaging
camera fitted to the front of the car, BMW Night Vision presents a video image of people, animals and
other heat-emitting objects even when they are outside of the range of the headlights. If the system
determines that a pedestrian or cyclist is on a collision course with the vehicle, it sends a warning
to the driver via the Control Display or Head-Up Display.
Safety: body strength, active and passive features
Through the use of intelligent lightweight construction, optimised materials and a high degree of
structural integrity, the new BMW 5 Series sedan offers outstanding safety performance. Aluminium has
been used for the bonnet, front side panels and all doors helping to reduce weight compared to the
previous generation by 23 kg while at the same time, the new car is 55 per cent stiffer.
By combining the aluminium panels with a passenger cell comprising high-strength and ultra-high
strength steels, BMW has made a car that offers both structural stiffness with precisely defined
deformation zones and light weight to provide excellent driving dynamics and extremely high levels
of passive safety.
Further passive safety features to protect occupants in the event of a collision, include
frontal and side hip/thorax airbags for driver and front passenger, and side curtain head airbags
extending the length of the cabin to protect both front and rear occupants.
All five seating positions are fitted with three-point seatbelts with the driver and front
passenger's combining pyrotechnic pre-tensioners and belt force limiters to further reduce
Both front seats are also fitted with active head restraints that, in the event of a rear-end
collision, automatically move up and forward to reduce the distance to the occupant's head and
subsequently help reduce the potential for whiplash injuries.
To optimise pedestrian protection, the new 5 Series sedan also features an active bonnet that,
in the event of a collision with a pedestrian, automatically lifts the bonnet by 30 mm at the
front and 50 mm at the rear to provide a greater deformation zone beneath the bonnet.
With its driving dynamics and handling, the new 5 Series is designed to avoid any potential
collisions in the first place and to further assist this BMW has fitted a number of active
The large ventilated front and rear disc brakes are fitted with the latest generation anti-lock
braking system (ABS) that maintains the steerability of the car irrespective of road surface
conditions. Combined with the anti-lock feature, this system also offers Brake Assist to help
shorten stopping distances in an emergency situation and Cornering Brake Control (CBC) to
stabilise the vehicle during cornering.
Working in conjunction with the ABS is the DSC Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) that co-ordinates
all stability, traction and braking functions to ensure safe and dynamic motoring at all times.
Powertrain: performance and efficiency
As a car renowned for its driving pleasure, the new BMW 5 Series sedan will launch with a choice
of three petrol engines.
Headlining the model range is the 4.4 litre V8 in the 550i that delivers performance
characteristics and efficiency in one. Combining BMW TwinPower Turbo Technology and High Precision
Injection, the all-aluminium powerplant delivers a maximum power of 300 kW between 5,500 rpm and
6,400 rpm and peak torque of 600 Nm sustained consistently between 1,750 rpm and 4,500 rpm. These
figures represent an increase in maximum outputs compared with the previous generation 550i of 30
kW and 110 Nm enabling the 550i to cover the 0-100 km/h sprint in 5.0 seconds.
At the same time, combined with the new ultra-efficient 8 speed Sports Automatic transmission,
the new 550i offers reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions with a combined cycle fuel
consumption of 10.4 litres per 100 km and 243 g/km of CO2.
As the most efficient engine of its kind, the V8 is also the first in the world to feature the
turbochargers and catalytic converters housed within the V-section of the engine providing an
exceptionally spontaneous and direct response.
BMW's straight six cylinder petrol engines have become legendary thanks to their incredibly
responsive power and performance, outstanding efficiency and supreme smoothness and refinement and
for the new generation 5 Series sedan, BMW offers two superb six-cylinder powerplants in the 535i
For the 535i, BMW has for the first time combined BMW TwinPower Technology, High Precision
Injection and variable VALVETRONIC valve management to produce a 3.0 litre engine that delivers
substantial improvements in performance and fuel efficiency compared with the previous generation
Generating a maximum power of 225 kW at 5,800 rpm and peak torque of 400 Nm from a low 1,200
rpm right through to 5,000 rpm, the new engine produces 25 kW and 85 Nm more than its predecessor
enabling the 535i to sprint from standstill to 100 km/h in 6.1 seconds. Like the V8, the 535i's
engine is matched to the new 8 speed Sports Automatic transmission and delivers a level of
efficiency unparalleled in this power class using just 8.4 litres of petrol per 100 km on the
combined cycle and producing only 195 g/km of CO2.
The third petrol engine in the new 5 Series sedan is the naturally-aspirated straight six 3.0
litre powerplant in the 528i that like its 'siblings'. Replacing the 2.5 litre straight six in
the previous generation 525i, the 3.0 litre engine provides the 528i with an additional 30 kW of
power and 60 Nm of torque to generate maximum outputs of 190 kW at 6,600 rpm and 310 Nm across a
broad rev range between 2,600 rpm and 3,000 rpm.
Despite the increase in capacity over its predecessor that helps the 528i to cover 0-100 km/h
in 6.7 seconds, BMW's ongoing development of this engine that features VALVETRONIC and in
combination with EfficientDynamics, has reduced fuel consumption and emissions to 8.0 l/100 km
and 187 g/km.
The 528i is also fitted standard with an 8 speed Automatic transmission which like the Sports
Automatic in its 'siblings', offers a unique combination of gearshift refinement and efficiency.
Boasting a particularly innovative gearset configuration with four single gearsets and five shift
units to provide the eight forward and one reverse gears, the new transmission delivers the dynamics
and efficiency of a Double-Clutch Transmission with smoothness and refinement.
The 528i offers manual shifting of the transmission via the centre console mounted shift lever,
while the Sports Automatic Transmission comes standard with steering wheel mounted paddles for self
Chassis: lightweight suspension, perfect balance, cutting edge technology
The technically sophisticated suspension on the new BMW 5 Series sedan combines sporting driving
qualities with a high level of motoring comfort. At the front, the aluminium double wishbone front
axle allows clear separation of the wheel guidance and damping functions to provide smooth and
consistent grip and deliver precise handling and superior comfort in the most demanding driving